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Overview Edit

The Justinian class is the latest in the long line of Byzantine battleships and a cumulation of the "All-or-Nothing" armor design. The ship has 9 16"/50 guns, unlike the 12 in the Basil II class. The Basil II class, though regarded highly, faced some degree of criticism from many quarters. One criticism heaped, was that the armor of the ship was not sufficiently proof against its own guns, and the ship was too slow. The Justinian class was thus born and the ship was notably faster by 1 knot and long cruising range. Provisions were also made so that the ship could fire heavier shells, though the could in principle fire those as well. Another aspect of the ship was the use of inclined armor to provide her with greater protection against future threats, such as the 18"/45 guns in development at that time.

Specifications Edit

Justinian, Byzantine Empire Battleship laid down 1923

Displacement:
    47,199 t light; 50,009 t standard; 53,482 t normal; 56,260 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
    (822.75 ft / 803.81 ft) x 108.27 ft x (36.09 / 37.62 ft)
    (250.77 m / 245.00 m) x 33.00 m  x (11.00 / 11.47 m)

Armament:
      9 - 16.00" / 406 mm 50.0 cal guns - 2,400.00lbs / 1,088.62kg shells, 120 per gun
      Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1923 Model
      3 x 3-gun mounts on centreline ends, majority forward
        1 raised mount - superfiring
      16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 54.0 cal guns - 116.18lbs / 52.70kg shells, 200 per gun
      Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1923 Model
      8 x 2-gun mounts on sides, evenly spread
      40 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm 40.0 cal guns - 1.87lbs / 0.85kg shells, 2,000 per gun
      Anti-air guns in deck mounts, 1923 Model
      10 x Twin mounts on side ends, majority aft
        4 raised mounts - superfiring
      40 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm 39.0 cal guns - 0.22lbs / 0.10kg shells, 2,000 per gun
      Anti-air guns in deck mounts, 1923 Model
      10 x Quad mounts on side ends, majority aft
      16 - 0.50" / 12.7 mm 12.0 cal guns - 0.04lbs / 0.02kg shells, 2,000 per gun
      Machine guns in deck mounts, 1923 Model
      16 x 4-gun mounts on centreline, aft deck forward
      Weight of broadside 23,543 lbs / 10,679 kg

Armour:
   - Belts:        Width (max)    Length (avg)        Height (avg)
    Main:    16.0" / 406 mm    520.00 ft / 158.50 m    20.00 ft / 6.10 m
    Ends:    Unarmoured
      Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length
      Main Belt inclined 19.00 degrees (positive = in)

   - Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
        4.00" / 102 mm    450.00 ft / 137.16 m    33.00 ft / 10.06 m
    Beam between torpedo bulkheads 68.00 ft / 20.73 m

   - Hull void:
        19.0" / 483 mm      19.00 ft / 5.79 m    19.00 ft / 5.79 m

   - Gun armour:    Face (max)    Other gunhouse (avg)    Barbette/hoist (max)
    Main:    18.0" / 457 mm    16.0" / 406 mm        16.0" / 406 mm
    2nd:    2.50" / 64 mm    2.50" / 64 mm        2.50" / 64 mm
    3rd:    0.50" / 13 mm    0.50" / 13 mm              -                  -
    4th:    0.50" / 13 mm    0.50" / 13 mm              -
    5th:    0.50" / 13 mm          -                  -

   - Armoured deck - multiple decks:
    For and Aft decks: 8.00" / 203 mm
    Forecastle: 2.00" / 51 mm  Quarter deck: 2.00" / 51 mm

   - Conning towers: Forward 16.00" / 406 mm, Aft 3.00" / 76 mm

Machinery:
    Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
    Electric motors, 4 shafts, 74,704 shp / 55,729 Kw = 24.00 kts
    Range 9,000nm at 15.00 kts
    Bunker at max displacement = 6,251 tons

Complement:
    1,757 - 2,285

Cost:
    £12.330 million / $49.319 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
    Armament: 4,895 tons, 9.2 %
       - Guns: 4,895 tons, 9.2 %
    Armour: 22,487 tons, 42.0 %
       - Belts: 7,123 tons, 13.3 %
       - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,065 tons, 3.9 %
       - Void: 254 tons, 0.5 %
       - Armament: 4,637 tons, 8.7 %
       - Armour Deck: 7,828 tons, 14.6 %
       - Conning Towers: 581 tons, 1.1 %
    Machinery: 2,497 tons, 4.7 %
    Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,225 tons, 32.2 %
    Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,283 tons, 11.7 %
    Miscellaneous weights: 95 tons, 0.2 %
       - Hull above water: 20 tons
       - On freeboard deck: 75 tons

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
    Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
      85,248 lbs / 38,668 Kg = 41.6 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 16.4 torpedoes
    Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.05
    Metacentric height 6.2 ft / 1.9 m
    Roll period: 18.3 seconds
    Steadiness    - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 72 %
            - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.80
    Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.31

Hull form characteristics:
    Hull has a flush deck,
      a normal bow and a round stern
    Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.596 / 0.601
    Length to Beam Ratio: 7.42 : 1
    'Natural speed' for length: 28.35 kts
    Power going to wave formation at top speed: 41 %
    Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 55
    Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 30.00 degrees
    Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
    Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
                Fore end,     Aft end
       - Forecastle:    20.00 %,  32.81 ft / 10.00 m,  22.97 ft / 7.00 m
       - Forward deck:    30.00 %,  22.97 ft / 7.00 m,  19.69 ft / 6.00 m
       - Aft deck:    30.00 %,  19.69 ft / 6.00 m,  19.69 ft / 6.00 m
       - Quarter deck:    20.00 %,  19.69 ft / 6.00 m,  16.40 ft / 5.00 m
       - Average freeboard:        21.29 ft / 6.49 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
    Space    - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 86.7 %
        - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 141.0 %
    Waterplane Area: 63,412 Square feet or 5,891 Square metres
    Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 %
    Structure weight / hull surface area: 219 lbs/sq ft or 1,070 Kg/sq metre
    Hull strength (Relative):
        - Cross-sectional: 0.98
        - Longitudinal: 1.21
        - Overall: 1.00
    Adequate machinery, storage, compartmentation space
    Excellent accommodation and workspace room
    Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
    Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily


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